Disease

Prevention of Blindness and Eye Care

Prevention of Blindness and Eye Care  

Prevention of blindness aims at early detection and treatment of the diseases or conditions causing blindness and modification of the visual loss in the individual so that the patient would not be classified as blind.

blindness

Primary prevention for Blindness

 (1) Prevention of xerophthalmia by improving nutrition in general and providing vitamin A in particular to under­nourished children. (2) Parents should be aware that a child roar has a defective vision at a ver:v early age: so even in absence of any suspicion or complaints, testing of vision at an age of 5 or 6 years to exclude severe refractive error. can go a long way to preserving their sight. (3) Children should not be allowed to play with pointed objects and such toys which may accidentally cause injury and infection and ultimately damage their eyesight (4) Using safety devices and taking personal precaution while at work or games so as to prevent eve trauma. (5) Family counseling may prevent inherited diseases.

Blindness

(2) Parents should be aware that a child roar has a defective vision at a very early age: so even in absence of any suspicion or complaints, testing of vision at an age of 5 or 6 years to exclude severe refractive error. can go a long way to preserving their sight. (3) Children should not be allowed to play with pointed objects and such toys which may accidentally cause injury and infection and ultimately damage their eyesight (4) Using safety devices and taking personal precaution while at work or games so as to prevent eve trauma. (5) Family counseling may prevent inherited diseases.

(3) Children should not be allowed to play with pointed objects and such toys which may accidentally cause injury and infection and ultimately damage their eyesight. (4) Using safety devices and taking personal precautions while at work or games so as to prevent eve trauma. (5) Family counseling may prevent inherited diseases.

(4) Using safety devices and taking personal precautions while at work or games so as to prevent eve trauma. (5) Family counseling may prevent inherited diseases.

Secondary Prevention. This involves the effective and timely treatment of blinding diseases. e.g., glaucoma. corneal ulcer and other ocular diseases. The required eye care can well be provided either at the Thana (sub-district) Health Complex/Primary Health Centre or at the District level hospitals were adequately trained personnel is available. Since cataract accounts for nearly 50% of blindness the eve camp approach for the cataract operations has been proved quite effective. Difficult and complicated care that cannot be provided at the secondary level is provided at the teaching hospitals and specialized eye hospitals at the national and intermediate levels.

Changing Concept of Primary Eye Care

There has been a significant development in the concept of primary eye care in recent years. The primary eye care, as one of the important tasks of the primary health care systems, has received global acceptance. It includes the promotion of eye health and the prevention and treatment of conditions that may lead to visual loss. This needs to be supported by an adequate referral system.

These include (i) promotive and preventive, and (ii) clinical eye care activities.

Promotive and preventive activities: in order to promote eye health and prevent blindness the primary health care workers should disseminate appropriate information to the community, make the community aware that the majority of blinding diseases are either preventable or curable and stimulate individual and community participation in activities to prevent blindness. They should also advise the people in personal hygiene. nutrition, sanitation, and protection of the eye.

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Clinical activities: (a) Conditions to be recognized and treated by a primary health care worker are acute conjunctivitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, trachoma, allergic and irritative conjunctivitis. lid lesions (styes and chalazion), trauma leading to subconjunctival hemorrhage (should be referred to if associated with pain or visual loss). superficial foreign bodies. in the eye (to be referred to secondary level if the foreign body cannot be removed), blunt trauma, xerophthalmia, and keratomalacia; (b) Conditions to be recognized and referred to secondary or tertiary level after treatment. has been initiated are corneal ulcers lacerations or perforating injuries of the eyeball, lid lacerations. entropion/ trichiasis, burns; (c) Conditions that should be recognized and referred, to secondary/tertiary level institutions for treatment are the painful red eye with visual loss, cataract pterygium. visual loss. In the other hand, Glaucoma is an eye disease that can damage the optic nerve, causing vision loss. Learn how medical marijuana online treats glaucoma.

Supplies and equipment for primary eye Care, The choice of drugs and equipment for primary eye care should generally be guided by the local conditions. However, the following should be considered; (1) Drugs: tetracycline 1% eye. ointment; chloramphenicol or another antimicrobial preparation for topical use in the eye; zinc sulfate 0.2% eye drops; silver nitrate 1% eye drops or a single application of tetracycline 1% ointment to prevent ophthalmia neonatorum; Vitamin A capsules-110 mg _retinol palmitate (200.000 1U). (2) Equipment and supplies optotypes (one adapted to local conditions): torch and batteries; hand magnifying lens; epilation forceps (in trachoma endemic areas); eye pads bandages. etc.

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