The organism type is responsible for Infectious diseases. Viruses, bacteria parasites or fungi are the samples of Pathogenic microorganisms. For example, bloodborne disease; sexually transmitted diseases; zoonotic disease. WHO provides the descriptions of infectious diseases activities, news, reports, and events in its health topic page. About the contacts and cooperating partners in it WHO programmes as well as offices working on this topic. WHO has compiled a list of threats to global health in 2020 and many of them are infectious disease-related.
Just now WHO highlighted best practices for naming infectious diseases to minimize negative impact about it on trade, travel, tourism or animal welfare for avoiding causing offence to any cultural, social, national, regional, professional or ethnic groups.
Forty-Six Infectious diseases are recorded in WHO Fact sheets. A short description is also given with the disease name.
|Animal bites : Animal bites are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.|
|Buruli ulcer : Buruli ulcer is a chronic debilitating disease caused by an environmental Mycobacterium ulcerans.|
|Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)
About 6 million to 7 million people worldwide, mostly in Latin America, are estimated to be infected with Trypansosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease.
Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. It causes fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash.
|Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.|
|Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) of the Bunyaviridae family. The CCHF virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10–40%.|
|Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread in all regions of WHO in recent years. Dengue virus is transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, Ae. albopictus.|
|Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old, and is responsible for killing around 525 000 children every year. Diarrhoea can last several days, and can leave the body without the water and salts that are necessary for survival.|
|Dracunculiasis is rarely fatal, but infected people become non-functional for weeks. It affects people in rural, deprived and isolated communities who depend mainly on open surface water sources such as ponds for drinking water.|
Human echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease (a disease that is transmitted to humans from animals) that is caused by parasites, namely tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus.
Foodborne trematodiases are caused by trematode worms (“flukes”), among them the species affecting humans with potentially severe outcomes, are Clonorchis, Opisthorchis, Fasciola and Paragonimus.
People become infected through the consumption of raw or undercooked food: fish, crustaceans and vegetables that harbour the minute larval stages of the parasites
|Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The virus is primarily spread when an uninfected (and unvaccinated) person ingests food or water that is contaminated with the faeces of an infected person. The disease is closely associated with unsafe water or food, inadequate sanitation, poor personal hygiene and oral-anal sex.|
|Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer.|
|Hepatitis C virus causes both acute and chronic infection. New HCV infections are usually asymptomatic. Some persons get acute hepatitis which does not lead to a life-threatening disease. Around 30% (15–45%) of infected persons spontaneously clear the virus within 6 months of infection without any treatment.|
|Hepatitis E is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). The virus has at least 4 different types: genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4. Genotypes 1 and 2 have been found only in humans. Genotypes 3 and 4 circulate in several animals (including pigs, wild boars, and deer) without causing any disease, and occasionally infect humans.|
|The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the immune system and weakens people’s defence systems against infections and some types of cancer. As the virus destroys and impairs the function of immune cells, infected individuals gradually become immunodeficient.|
|Humans can be infected with avian, swine and other zoonotic influenza viruses, such as avian influenza virus subtypes A(H5N1), A(H7N9), and A(H9N2) and swine influenza virus subtypes A(H1N1), A(H1N2) and A(H3N2).|
|Seasonal influenza is an acute respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses which circulate in all parts of the world.|
|Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. It is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, and belongs to the same genus as dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses.|
|Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic illness of 2-21 days duration that occurs in West Africa.|
|Leishmaniasis is caused by a protozoa parasite from over 20 Leishmania species. Over 90 sandfly species are known to transmit Leishmania parasites.|
|Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an acid-fast, rod-shaped bacillus.|
|Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease. Infection occurs when filarial parasites are transmitted to humans through mosquitoes. Infection is usually acquired in childhood causing hidden damage to the lymphatic system.|
|Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, called “malaria vectors.”|
|Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg virus disease (MVD), a disease with a case fatality ratio of up to 88%. Marburg virus disease was initially detected in 1967 after simultaneous outbreaks in Marburg and Frankfurt in Germany; and in Belgrade, Serbia.|
|Measles is a highly contagious, serious disease caused by a virus. Before the introduction of measles vaccine in 1963 and widespread vaccination, major epidemics occurred approximately every 2–3 years and measles caused an estimated 2.6 million deaths each year.|
|A variety of organisms including different bacteria, fungi or viruses, can cause meningitis. Meningococcal meningitis, a bacterial form of meningitis, is a serious infection of the meninges that affects the brain membrane. It can cause severe brain damage and is fatal in 50% of cases if untreated.|
|Monkeypox is a viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) with symptoms similar to those seen in the past in smallpox patients, although it is clinically less severe.|
|Onchocerciasis – or “river blindness” – is a parasitic disease caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus transmitted by repeated bites of infected blackflies|
|Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, a zoonotic bacteria, usually found in small mammals and their fleas. It is transmitted between animals through fleas. Humans can be infected through:|
|Pneumonia is a form of acute respiratory infection that affects the lungs. The lungs are made up of small sacs called alveoli, which fill with air when a healthy person breathes. When an individual has pneumonia, the alveoli are filled with pus and fluid, which makes breathing painful and limits oxygen intake.|
|Polio is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus. It invades the nervous system, and can cause total paralysis in a matter of hours.|
|Rabies is an infectious viral disease that is almost always fatal following the onset of clinical symptoms. In up to 99% of cases, domestic dogs are responsible for rabies virus transmission to humans.|
|Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that primarily affects animals but also has the capacity to infect humans.|
|Rubella is an acute, contagious viral infection. While rubella virus infection usually causes a mild fever and rash in children and adults, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or infants with congenital malformations, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).|
|Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection . If not recognized early and managed promptly, it can lead to septic shock, multiple organ failure and death.|
|Smallpox is a contagious, disfiguring and often deadly disease that has affected humans for thousands of years.|
|Taeniasis is an intestinal infection caused by 3 species of tapeworm: Taenia solium (pork tapeworm), Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia asiatica.|
|Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. It is caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection is transmitted by direct or indirect transfer of eye and nose discharges of infected people|
|Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease. It is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma.|
|Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable.|
|Vectors are living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between humans or from animals to humans.|
|Yaws forms part of a group of chronic bacterial infections commonly known as the endemic treponematoses.|
- African Region:
Dengue and severe dengue, Trachoma, Lymphatic filariasis, Onchocerciasis, Trypanosomiasis, human African (sleeping sickness), Cholera, Leishmaniasis, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever
Marburg hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, Smallpox
- Region of the Americas–PAHO
Zika virus (ZIKV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV), plague, cholera, yellow fever virus (YFV), and leptospirosis, periodically emerge or reemerge.
- South-East Asia Region
Childhood cluster diseases, TB, HIV infection, AIDS and meningitis are the other four major causes of death in the region.
- European Region / Eastern Mediterranean Region
Hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, Influenza, Measles and rubella, Poliomyelitis, Rotavirus, Sexually transmitted Infections, Tuberculosis, Vector-borne and parasitic diseases.
- Western Pacific Region
Malaria, Tuberculosis, Leprosy and parasitic diseases
Recently WHO was alerted to several cases of pneumonia in China. There was no similarity as like listed known virus. This raised concern because when a virus is new, we do not know how it affects people. In the same way, Chinese authorities confirmed that they had identified a new virus. Now it is know as coronavirus, which is a family of viruses that include the common cold, and viruses such as SARS and MERS. China government has considered this as an emergency issue and working with WHO and global experts from the day we were informed, to learn more about the virus, how it affects the people who are sick with it, how they can be treated, and what countries can do to respond. Coronavirus usually causes respiratory illness,