Details of Child Birth, Mortality and Maternal Mortality
Live birth:Live birth is the entire ejection or extraction from its mom of a result of origination.
Still-birth: It is defined as synonymous with late fetal death, that is a fetal death occurring after 28 completed weeks of gestation or over. In still-birth, there is no evidence of life at or after birth (for evidence of life see definition above).
Infant mortality: The mortality of live-born children who die before reaching their first birthday.
Infant mortality rate: The ratio of infant deaths registered in a given year to the total number of live births registered in the same year, usually expressed as a rate per 1000 live births.
The use of IMR as a measure of overall health status for a given population is based on the assumption that it is particularly sensitive to socioeconomic changes and to health care interventions. It varies enormously between the developed and least developed countries.
Important causes of infant mortality in Bangladesh are: (i) diarrhoea 30%, (ii) prematurity and low birth weight 11%, (iii) whooping cough 2%, (iv) ARI 18%, (v) neonatal tetanus 08%, (vi) measles 07%, (vii) other causes 24%.
Neonatal mortality: The mortality of Live-born children who die before reaching a certain age, taken as four weeks or a month.
Neonatal mortality rate: The proportion of neonatal passings in an offered year to the aggregate number of live births around the same time; typically communicated as a rate for every 1000.
Post-neonatal mortality: The mortality of live- born children who die after the neonatal period but before reaching the age of one year.
Post-neonatal mortality rate: The ratio of post- neonatal deaths in a given year to the total number of live births in the same year; usually expressed as a rate per 1000.
Perinatal mortality: Mortality during the prenatal period (which is variously defined but in general terms is understood to cover the later period of fetal development), the birth process and some portion of the neonatal period. According to the International Classification of Diseases, it extends from the 28th week of gestation to the 7th day of life.
Perinatal mortality rate: The ratio of perinatal deaths in a given year to the total number of live births in the same year; usually expressed as a rate per 1000.
Maternal mortality. In developing countries, maternal mortality accounts for the greatest number of deaths among women of reproductive age. WHO has defined Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) as:
Total number of female deaths due to complications of pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of delivery from “puerperal causes” in an area during a given year Total number of live births in the same area and same time interval
Important causes of maternal mortality are (1) toxemias of pregnancy (eclampsia), (ii) hemorrhage (postpartum hemorrhage). (iii) infection (puerperal sepsis), (iv) obstructed labour, (v) unsafe abortion, (vi) anaemia. (vii) associated diseases—cardiac. renal, hepatic, metabolic, etc. (viii) malignancy. (ix) accidents.
In developed countries, MMR has declined significantly, and hence the rate is expressed per 100,000 instead of 1000.For more we can find it in maternal dealth.