What is malnutrient ?
Ans: Protein-energy malnutrition effects children the most because they have less protein intake.
Nutritional status: Measurement of Weight, height/Length & Mid Upper Arm Circumference. Head circumference.
Height : More than Two Years
Length : Less than two Years.
Normal Respiration Rate:
Age In Month Nutritional Status
0-2 Month <60/Minute
2-12 Month < Minute
12-60 Month < 40/Minute
Classification of Malnutrition:
On the basis of Wt/Age & Presence /Absence of Oedema (welcome classification) :
Wt/Age oedema Nutritional Status
60-80% Present Kwashiorkor
Absent Under Nutrition
<60% Present Marasmic Kwashiorkor
Disease & Complication:
01. Severely Wasted
02. No Oedema
03. Wasted Face
04. Little subentaneous fat
05. Sever Muscle Wasting
06. Albumin near normal
07. Urine area maintained
01. Often not wasted
03. Moon Face
04. Subentaneous fat present
05. Muscle Wasting
06. Reduced serum albumin
07. Urine & Urea very low
08. Reduced essential non essential amino acid ration
09. Enlarged fatty liver.
What is macronutrient ? (Source)
Ans: Macro nutrition is looking at you caloric intake from the perspective of protein, carbohydrates and fats. This is opposed to micro nutrition that keeps track of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, etc.
Source: protein, carbohydrates and fats.
What is micronutrient ?
Ans: Micronutrition studies the impact of micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, trace elements, essential fatty acids etc) on health, assesses any deficiencies and looks for ways of optimising an individual’s micronutritional status.
Disease and Complication:
AWD Acute Watery Diarrhoea> 3 Day/Loose/Watery
ID(Invasive Diarrhoea) Blood+ Mucus& <14 Days PD(Persistent Diarrhoea) > 14 Days
What is diarrhoea? (Cusses: Bactial Diarhoea, virus Diarhoea )
Ans: Passage of loose or watery stool three or more times within 24 hours.
Or. Diarrhoea is loose, watery stools occurring more than three times in one day.
Causes of diarrhoea : A few of the more common causes of diarrhoea are:
Bacterial infections, Viral infections, Food intolerances, Parasites, Reaction to medicines, Intestinal diseases, Functional bowel disorders.
Bacterial infections. Several types of bacteria, consumed through contaminated food or water, can cause diarrhoea. Common culprits include Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli.
Viral infections. Many viruses cause diarrhoea, including rotavirus, Norwalk virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and viral hepatitis.
Protected of Diarrhoea:
• To stay neat and clean
• Give nutrition’s and more food.
• Drink safe water
• Give vaccine of measles
• Use safe and healthy sanitations.
Composition of ORS (Oral Rehydration Solution )?
1. Composition of ORS:
Suger – 20.00 gm
Na Cl – 1.75 gm
NaHCO3 – 1.25 gm
KCl – 0.75
2. Composition of ORS:(One litter)
Sodium chloride -3.5 gm
Glucose -20 gm
3. Composition of RORS: (1 litter)
Sodium chloride -3.5 gm
Glucose -20 gm
Rice Power – 50 gm
4. Composition of Rice based :
Rice –power -40.00gm
Sodium chloride – 2.6gm
Potassium chloride- 1.5gm
Triosdium citrus- 2.9gm
Sodium chloride -1.30gm
Tri sodium -1.45gm
Dextrose Anhydrous- 6.75gm
What’s a Z-Score ?
Ans: Nutritional status may also be expressed in terms of SD score of an anthropometric index such as WH. This score, also known as Z score, invitation of a nutritional status for NCHS reference values.
SD core = Individual’s value –median value of reference population
SD value of reference population
AWA and ZHA can be calculated in a similar way. If the individual value is greater than the median, then the value of + 1 SD taken to calculate the SD value of reference population:
For WA and WH : 1 Z score unit is about 10% of the median, except in infants <6 months of age.
For Ha : 1 Z score unit is about 5% of the median.
Malnutrition is defined as less than 2 standard deviations from the median (<- 2 z scores).
WH<-3 z is severe wasting
HA<-3 z is severe stunting
WA<- 3 z is severe underweight.
What is MUAC ? How to calculate MUAC ?
Ans: This index is useful for rapid assessment of nutritional status of children in a setting or in an emergency situation, such as a famine. But it is applicable only for children between 1 and 5 years of age.
MUAC Nutritional status
< 13.5 cm not malnourished
12.5-13.5 cm moderately malnourished
<12.5 cm severely malnourished
What is anthropometrics ?
Ans: Measurements of weight, height or length, MUAC, for assessing nutritional status is known as anthropometry.
Q. PEM Classification of anthropometrics:
Weight for age(WA): Gomez classification:
Well nourished 90-120% = Normal Nutrition
First degree 75-89% = Mild
Second degree 60-74% = Moderate
Third degree <60% = Severe Under nutrition
Weight for height (WH): —-Waterlow Classification
Well nourished 90-120% = Normal Nutrition
Grade I degree 80-89% = Mild
Grade II degree 70-79% = Moderate
Grade III degree <70% = Severe wasting
Height for Age (HA): —-Waterlow Classification
Well nourished 90-110% = Normal Nutrition
Grade I degree 90-94% = Mild
Grade II degree 85-89% = Moderate
Grade III degree <85 = Severe stunting
Q. Composition of food ( Elements of food )
• Mineral salt
Q. Cause of malnutrition:
• Environmental Problem
• Weight for age & length
Q. Epi Vaccination(Disease)
• Whooping cough
Q. Anthropometric Methods:
Ans: Measurement of the variations of the physical discussions and the gross composition of the human body at different age level and degrees of malnutrition.
01) Non dominant or left hand
02) Mid point of the acromion and colcannon
03) MUAC tape should be bend with flexibility
Length: Length board should be flat placed in sufficient light.
01) Flat placed
02) Sufficient light.
03) Low clothing
04) Adjust with ‘O ‘ zero.
05) Straight standing.8
Height: Height scale should be flat placed . Five points should be considered during height measurement. They are as blew:
01) Frank fort line
Length: same as before:
Q. Cronic disease :
• K) TT
• L) Diphtheria
• M) Whooping cough
• N) BCG
• O) Measles
• P) Polio
Q.What is parasitic infection?
Ans: Genetic relationships between indicator traits and nematode parasite infection levels in 6-month-old lambs.
Q.What is Hypophosphate?
Ans: Pertaining to, or derived from, or containing, phosphorus in a lower state of oxidation than in phosphoric compounds; as, hypophosphoric acid
1. a salt of hypophosphoric acid containing any of several negative radicals, monovalent HPO, divalent HPO, trivalent HPO, or tetravalent PO
2. an uncharged ester of this acid
Q. What is Iron ? Write some food with Iron?
Ans: Palk, Egg, Sweet, banana, Liver, Cauliflower, Papaw, Stick spines, green spines, red spines,
Q. What is phosphate?
Ans: A tertiary salt of orthophosphoric acid, as sodium phosphate. A Phosphate is a type of mineral .formula is CaH5O6P
tiny, salty objects that are mainly made up of phosphoric acids that fertilize and are used in common foods such as bread or other foods.
Q. What is pneumonia ?
When the lung is infected by the bacteria, virus or any other jorum then called pneumonia. Malnutritist ()
• Cold or humid weather
• Polluted environment
• If not breast feed properly
Q. Write some food with Iron ?
Palk, Egg, Sweet, banana, Liver, Cauliflower, Papaw
Q. What is birth rate and death rate of Bangladesh?
Birth rate =24.8 per 1000 people |
Death rate = 9.23 per 1000 people |
Infant birth rate = 59.02 per 1000 people |
Infant death rate = 60.8 per 1000 people
Q. EPI :Schedule
Sl. EPI Schedule Which Disease Dose When Start
1 BCG Tuberculosis 1 dose After Birth/6 Weeks
2 DPT, Hepatitis-B,
/ Penta(DPT, Hep-B, HIB)
Diphtheria, Pertusis, Whooping cough, Tetanus, Hepatitis-B
3 dose 6 Weeks/42 days
3 Polio/OPV Poliomyelitis
3 dose Two Drops After brith/6 Weeks
(1 dose after birth 2
Weeks. Its name ‘0’ dose)
4 Measles, OPV-4, Vitamin-A
1 dose After Completed 9 months/270 days.
TT Schedule: 15 to 45 years old woman.
TT-1 = 15 years
TT-2 = After TT-1 then 28 days
TT-3 = After TT-2 then 6 month
TT-4 = After TT-3 then 1 years
TT-5 = After TT-4 then 1 years
Vision: Healthier people-better lives through evidence based solution.
Mission: We will help solve significant public health challenges facing the people of Bangladesh and beyond, especially the most vulnerable, through the generation of knowledge and its translation into policy and practice.
Q. What are the diseases attach in absence of vitamin
• Night blindness deficiency – A
• Beri beri -B
• Scurvy -C
• Rickets -D
Q. Source of Vitamin:
• A – Hilsha, Egg, Butter, ghee, Fish liver, Rip Pawpa
• B – Wheat, Milk, Green vegetables, Yoghurt, Cauliflower,
• C – Lemon, Orange, Green chili, Strawberries, guava, olive
• D – Sunshine, Fish oil, Yolk of egg, Butter, ghee, fat
• E – Yolk of egg,
• K – Green Vegetables, fruits
Q. Sorce of Vitamin D ?
Ans: Sunshine, Cod Fish, Shark’s liver, Fish oil, Yolk of egg, Butter, ghee, fat
29. Vitamin D ?
Ans: Vitamin D
Q. What is Boby mass index equation (Significance of BMI values for adults)?
Ans: Significance of BMI values for adults
Condition Indicated Men Women
Protein-calorie malnutrition < 17 < 17
Underweight < 20 < 19
Acceptable weight 20.7 – 27.8 19.1 – 27.3
Intervention indicated > 26.4 > 25.8
Obese > 27.8 > 27.3
Severely obese > 31.1 > 32.2
Morbidly obese > 45.4 > 44
Normal BMI Values for Infants and Children
Infants (at birth) 13
1 year 18
6 years 15
Q. Data type ?
Ans: Two type of data :
01. Quality data
02. Quantitative data
Q. What is Cognitive development of child?
Ans: Parental mental health and child development from six to thirty-six months in a birth cohort study in Taiwan
Q. What are the main causes of Under 5 child death ?
Ans: The main causes of Under 5 child death:
Q. What are Important causes of maternal morbidly?
• Early Marriage
• Heavy bleeding
• Septic abortion
• Too close pregnancy
• Inadequate prenatal care
Q. Define Data, Classify data.
Data: Data are the raw materials out of which information is obtained.
Primary data: Data is the obtained directly from an individual is called Primary data.
Secondary Data: Data that is obtained from out side source is called Secondary Data
Q. Technigue of data collection:
• Using available information
• Organize Focus group discussion
• Using project Technique
Q. What is role of Supervision?
• Prepare plan
• Insure field visit
• Team Sprit
• Communication skill
• Interpretation skill
• Quality insure
• Good attitude
• Prepare report
Q. How to quality check data or ensure of data?
• Cross checking
• Spot checking
• Sample checking
Q. What is Data type?
• Qualitative data
• Quantitative data
Q. Data Collection to Analysis step:
• Data collection
• Data Checking
• Data Entry
• Data cleaning
• Data analysis
Q. Two types of Questionnaire:
• Open questionnaire &
• Closed questionnaire
Q. Output window show error then I should:
• Check the respective case
• Cross check the case
• Double entry of the case
• Print out of the enrolled case
• If I get the error. Then I should correct the error
Q. How I back up the File for safety:
• Save the file in hard Disk
• Save the file in Floppy disk
• Save the file in Compact Disk
• Save the file for back up file etc.
Q. What is Low birth weight (LBW)? What are the main cause of LBW?
Ans: A birth weight of less then 2.5 kg. the measurement being taken preferably within 1st hour of life.
When brith weight 2.5 kg or less then called LBW. Birth weight is 1.5 kg or less called VLBW.
The main cause of LBW:
• Premature delivery
• Maternal under nutrition
• Multiple pregnancies
• Inadequate prenatal care
• Intra uteri a infections.
Q. Define IMR? What are the Rate of IMR in Bangladesh?
Ans: IMR: Infant mortality is defiled as the rate of the infant deaths registered in a given year to the total number of live births registered in the same year. Usually experienced as rate per 1000 live births.
Rate of IMR: 60.8/1000 live birth.(15.02.2010)
Q. What are the causes of NMR:
The causes of NMR:
• Low birth weight
• Acute respiratory infection
• Diarrhoea disease
• Difficult labour
Q. What is Migration out?
Ans: To move a place to another place for live called migration out from that place. Or, Moved one place to another place for live called migration .
Q. Dangerous 5 sign syndrome of pregnant woman?
01| Excessive Bleeding
04| High fever
05| Let outcome
Q. What will be the problems in a team & how will you overcome these problem?
01) Non adjustment among team members
02) Sickness of team members
Supervisor should observe every team members neutrally & then identify problem-maker to & warn to be careful. Supervision should be strict & nonbiased in decision-making. If any team member gets ill, then supervise should take him/her to local doctor. If it is uncertain, then supervisor should take necessary steps to back him/her to office and an alternative personnel should be appointed.
Methods difference :
Quantitative data methods use:
01) Anthropometry (Weight, height, length, muck)
02) Monitoring data
03) Structured survey
04) Verbal Autopsy.
01) Family income
03) Employment status
01) Family size, race
02) Age, Sex
03) Household characteristics
Q. What is quality data check? How do you ensure quality data check?
Ans: The way to identify the error of the data which in collected.
Spot checking: If there seems to be any suspicion in checking data or information, then spot checking is necessary . The same data should be taken by the same respondent on the same spot, then it would be comparable with the previous data.
If there is found any errors, necessary seeps should be taken.
Supportive supervision: Supervisor should be in supportive manner to his/her tem members, supervisor should be give enough time to the team member to know his/her problems, and should also take necessary steps to solve that. If supervisor can not be along with the team members. Then he/she should contact over telephone to know the problems and give proper solutions.
01) Supervisor observe the pattern of question throwing of interviewer & the ensure of responded, If found any faulty methods, then field note should be take.
02) Field location & transport cost is taken as field notes.
03) Interviewer performance should be taken as field notes.
04) Field notes also include the fix up , target, by ratio the percentage of fulfillment of target.
Q. If interviewer is not in spot then?
Ans: 01) Have to check the spot carefully
01) Have to know the reason for interviewer’s absent.
02) Have to identify the true reasons, for the absent.
03) Have to justify there reason.
04) Have to fell the interviewer to inform the supervisor if it happens again.
Q. What depth interview?
Ans: In-depth interview is held between respondent & interviewer. Each in-depth interview should have a guideline. And interviewer is responsible to keep the respondent in track according to the guideline. Interviewer can use tape recorder to record their conversation, if respondent permits. Interviewer should make friendly environment and therefore respondent can share every inner information, even confidential, thus interviewer can take his/her necessary information according to instruction/ guideline.
Q. Difference between qualitative & quantitative data?
Ans: a) Qualitative methods are descriptive whereas quantitative methods are objective.
b) In quantitative methods , structured questionnaire are used, whereas open discussion are held in qualitative research methods.
c) Qualitative methods such as in-depth interview, focus group discussion, where various, topics may be discussed between respondent & interviewer. In qualitative methods, object oriented questioner are asked to the respondent.
Q. What is the Surveillance:
Surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, collation, analysis and interpretation of data, and the dissemination of information to those who need to know in order that action may be taken.
Q. Interview :
Interview is the collection of information according the questionnaire
Q. Coding :
Inter the numeric or alphabetic representation of collected data.
Q. Editing :
Editing is the checking of collected data for inconsistency an error and verify the answer for validity.
Q. Motivation :
Motivation is the way of conveyance to one or people to do something for the reason and arguments.
Q. What is NRW admission criteria (All for under 5 Years old children) ?
• Oedema (Any degree)
• Weight-for-length(W/L)/ weight –for-height (WH)<-3Z score
• Weight-for age (WA) <-4Z score of WHO standard
Q. What is NRW discharge criteria (All for under 5 Years old children) ?
Minimum 7 – day stay at NRW & good general Condition, & Oedema free WL or WH >-2Z score or WA > -4Z score WHO standard.
Q. How are the type of protein ?
Ans. Two type of protein. As if: First class protein and second class protein.
Q. Source of First class protein and second class protein.
First class protein : Milk, egg, meat, fish.
Second class protein : All kinds of pulse , bean, vegetables, rice.
Disease due to protein deficiency: Nephritis, Nephrotic, Syndrome.
- Vitamin A is given below 1 year of age?
Ans: 2,00,000 Unit above 1 year of age
- Vitamin A is given below for infant 6-12 months.
Ans: 1,00,000 Unit above
- Vitamin A is given below 6 months of age
Ans: 50,000 Unite
- If child has xerophthalmia, the same dose of Vitamin A are given below on each of days
Ans: 1.2 and 15 or no day of discharge.
- If there is eye inflammation:
Ans: Pus in eye redness and watering.
- Which medicine use for this eye inflammation:
Ans: the eyes are protected with pads and chloramphenicol eye drops are given every 6 hours .
- Every severely Malnourished children’s giving elemental zink
Ans: 2 mg/kg par day
- Malnourished children’s means:
Ans: WA <50% or WH <70%, or with edema
- Every severely Malnourished children’s giving Folic acid:
Ans: ¼ tablet (5 mg/tablet)
- It is continued till the end to nutritional rehabilitation, for very severely malnutrition:
Ans: Folic Acid ¼(5 mg/tablet)
- Diarrhoea is common among severely malnourished children:
Ans: With dehydration (IV) Intravenous
- Malnourished children are prove to develop fluid overload and heart failure as a result of rapid:
Ans: Intravenous (IV) rehydration .
- When use NG tube drop:
Ans: If a child is unable to drink due to weakness or vomiting.
- When the child become able to the ORS If possible is added to due infusion;
Ans: Injection potassium chloride 13 mmol/L or infudion.
- A child requires IV infusion in the following condition:
• Sever dehydration
• Shock (due to severe dehydration of septic shock)
• Severe abdominal distension with absent bowel sound.
• Severe vomiting (continuing even after given ORS by NG tube)
- If children with sever dehydration :
Ans: Iv cholera saline with 5% dextrose
- Infection potassium chloride solution is added to each litre of the infusion, The IV flude is given at the following rates:
• 1st hour : 20ml/kg
• 2nd hour : 10ml/kg
- Hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level:
Ans: < 3mmol/L or 54 mg/dL (can be used measured by dextrostix )
- When important disease during the first two days of treatment ?
- Sever Systemic infection
- What is symptom or signs of Hypoglycemia :
Ans: Low body temperature and child has not feed, clouding of consciousness , lethargy or convulsions.
- Signs of dehydration without a history of watery diarrhea, its means:
Ans: Septic shock(Hypothermia or Hypoglycemia, )
- Hypothermia when rectal temp is <35.5 c (<96.F) or axially (under-arm) temperature <35.c(<95.F) , What to do
Ans: The child should be wrapped in blankets.
- If any child this problem (If means Hypothermia ) therefore:
Ans: Providing warmth an electric lamp may be placed close to the body but sufficiently away to avoid burns.
- Rectal temperature should be ;
Ans: Measured every 30 minutes during re-warming with a lamp.
- Rectal and oral temperature should be use:
Ans: Different thermometer.
- Is commonly seen in diarrhea with some of sever dehydration:
- No other treatment than appropriate correction of dehydration:
Ans: If features of acidosis are present rapid and deep breathing
- There is a risk of increase in severity of infection;
Ans: Very severe anemia
NCHS : National Centre for Health Statistics
WA : Weight for age
HW : Height for weight
WH : Weight for height
ZWA : Weight for age Z score
ZWH : Weight for height Z score
ZHW : Height for weight Z score
IM : Inter Musclur
IV : Inter Venus
ACVB : Introduction Of Cholera Vaccine In Bangladesh .
ICDDR,B : International Centre For Diarrhoea Disease
Research of Bangladesh
MUAC : Mid-upper arm circumference
EPI : Expended Program for Immunization
NIPSOM : National Institute of Preventive Social
NGO : Non-Government of Organization
WHO : World Health Organization
MMR : Maternal Mortality Rate
IMR : Infant Mortality Rate
CBR : Crude Birth Rate
CDR : Crude Death Rate
TB : Tuberculosis
HIV : Human Immunodeficiency virus
NIPORT : National Institution of Population Research and
BRAC : Bangladesh Institute Prevention of Social Medicine
AIDS : Acute Immunodeficiency Syndrome
DPT : Diphtheria Pertusis Tetanus
DT : Diphtheria Taxed